References and Literature For MindLift 

Part 1 The Modern Brain

Our brain is a miraculous machine

Azevedo, F. A., Carvalho, L. R., Grinberg, L. T., Farfel, J. M., Ferretti, R. E., Leite, R. E.,  Herculano-Houzel, S. (2009)    Equal numbers of neuronal and nonneuronal cells make the human brain an isometrically scaled-up primate brain.  The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 513(5), 532541.

Herculano-Houzel, S. (2013, June). Suzana Herculano-Houzel: What is so special about the human brain? [Video library]. Consulted from suzana_herculano_houzel_what_is_so_special_about_the_human_brain

Imaging study shows brain maturing. (2007, 17 May). National Institute of Mental Health. Consulted from http://

Reiner, A. (1990). The Triune Brain in Evolution. Role in Paleocerebral Functions. Paul D.MacLean. Plenum, New York, 1990. xxiv, 672 pp., illus. Science, 250(4978),303305.

Roberts, A. C., Robbins, T. W., & Weiskrantz L. (Eds.). (2000). The prefrontal cortex. Executive and cognitive functions. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.

The fight for our attention

Lachaux, J.-P. (2013, 7 December). Attention, distraction and the war in our brain: Jean Philippe Lachaux at TEDxEMLYON. [Video library]. Consulted from

The era of freedom and responsibility

Peeters, H. F. M., (1978). Historische gedragswetenschap: Een bijdrage tot de studie van menselijk gedrag op de lange termijn. Meppel, Nederland: Boom.

Part 2: Mental fitness

Goleman, D. (2014, 12 May). Exercising the mind to treat attention deficits. The New York Times. Consulted from

Standen, A. (2014, 3 November). Brain training may help calm the storms of schizophrenia. National Public Radio. Consulted from


The power of habit

Kok, A. (2004). Het hiërarchisch brein. Inleiding tot de cognitieve neurowetenschap. Assen, Nederland: Van Gorcum. Peters, S. D. (2012). The chimp paradox. London, England: Ebury Press.

Part 3 Mentality

Winslade, W. J., & Frank, V. E. (2006). Man’s search for meaning. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.

Focus on Growth Instead of Fixes Abilities

Dweck, C. S. (2007). Mindset: The new psychology of success. New York, NY: Random House.

Focus on Effort Instead of Talent

Deak, J., & Deak, T. (2013). The owner’s manual for driving your adolescent brain. San Francisco, CA: Little Pickle Press.

Focus on Letting it Happen Instead of Making it Happen

Csíkszentmihályi, M. (1996). Finding flow: The psychology of engagement with everyday life. New York (NY): Basic Books.

Focus on What You Want Most Instead of What You Want Now

Covey, S. R. (2013). The seven habits of highly effective people. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Focus on Empowering Instead of Positive Thoughts

Blanton, H., Cooper, J., Slkurnik, I., & Aronson, J. (1997). When bad things happen to good feedback: Exacerbating the need for self-justification with self-affirmations. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23(7), 684-692.

Kappes, H. B., & Oettingen, G. (2011). Positive fantasies about idealized futures sap energy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47(4), 719-729.

Sherif, M., & Hovland, C. I. (1961). Social judgment: Assimilation and contrast effects in communication and attitude change. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Wood, J. V., Elaine Perunovic, W. Q., & Lee, J. W. (2009). Positive self-statements: Power for some, peril for others. Psychological Science, 20(7), 860-866.

Part 4 Method

A new model for personal development

Swan, M. (2009). Emerging patient-driven health care models: An examination of health social networks, consumer personalized medicine and quantified self-tracking. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6(2), 492-525.

Part 5 Means

Do one thing at a time

Ophir, E., Nass, C., & Wagner, A. D. (2009). Cognitive control in media multitaskers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(37), 1558315587.

Sollisch, J. (2010, 10 August). Multitasking makes us a little dumber. Chicago Tribune. Consulted from ct-oped-0811-multitask-20100810_1_iqs-study-information-overload

Take a break

Ariga, A., & Lleras, A. (2011). Brief and rare mental breaks keep you focused: Deactivation and reactivation of task goals preempt vigilance decrements. Cognition, 118(3), 439-443.

University of British Columbia. (2009, 12 May). Brain’s problem-solving function at work when we daydream. ScienceDaily. Consulted from

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (2011, 8 February). Brief diversions vastly improve focus, researchers find. ScienceDaily.  Consulted from

Listen to video game music

Fox, J., & Embrey, E. D. (1972). Music an aid to productivity. Applied Ergonomics, 3(4), 202-205. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/0003-6870(72)90101-9

Lee, O. K. A., Chung, Y. F. L., Chan, M. F., & Chan, W. M. (2005), Music and its effect on the physiological responses and anxiety levels of patients receiving mechanical ventilation: a pilot study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14(5), 609620.

Weiden, R. M. F. van der. (2001). The Mozart effect. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 94(4), 170-172. Consulted from /articles/PMC1281386/

Wilkins, R., Hodges, D. A., Laurienti, P. J., Steen, M., & Burdette, J. H. (2014). Network science and the effects of music preference on functional brain connectivity: From Beethoven to Eminem. Nature, 4, 6130. http://dx.doi. org/10.1038/srep06130

Take coffee naps

Ribeiro, J. A., & Sebastião, A. M. (2010). Caffeine and adenosine. Journal of Alzheimer’s disease: JAD, , S3-15. http://

Harvard Medical School. (2007, 18 December). Why do we sleep, anyway? Consulted from http://healthysleep.

Reyner, L. A., & Horne, J. A. (1997). Suppression of sleepiness in drivers: combination of caffeine with a short nap. Psychophysiology, 34(6), 721–725. Consulted from

Horne, J. A., & Reyner, L. A. (1996). Counteracting driver sleepiness: effects of napping, caffeine, and placebo. Psychophysiology, 33(3), 306–309.  Consulted from

Hayashi, M., Masuda, A., & Hori, T. (2003). The alerting effects of caffeine, bright light and face washing after a short daytime nap. Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, 12, 2268–2278.  Consulted from

Get to Know Your Brain

Blackwell, L. S., Trzesniewski, K. H., & Dweck, C. S. (2007). Implicit theories of intelligence predict achievement across an adolescent transition: A longitudinal study and an intervention. Child Development, 78(1), 246263. 00995.x

Learn Just Enough to Get Started and Self-Correct

Kitsantas, A., Winsler, A., & Huie F. (2008). Self-regulation and ability predictors of academic success during college: A predictive validity study. Journal of Advanced Academics, 20(1), 42-68. Consulted from http://

Process Manually

Andrade, J. (2010). What does doodling do? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 4(1), 100-106. acp.1561

Berninger, V. W., Abbott, R. D., Jones, J., Wolf, B. J., Gould, L., Anderson-Youngstrom, M., Shimanda, S., & Apel, K. (2006). Early development of language by hand: composing, reading, listening, and speaking connections; three letter-writing modes; and fast mapping in spelling. Developmental Neuropsychology, 29(1), 61-92.

Mueller, P. A., & Oppenheimer, D. M. (2014). The pen is mightier than the keyboard: Advantages of longhand over laptop note taking. Psychological Science, 25(6), 11591158.

Wade, P. A. (2013, 4 April). Do students learn better by typing on a keyboard or writing with a pen? Indiana University School of Medicine. Consulted from typing-or-writing

Explain It to Someone Else

Goldin-Meadow, S., & Alibali, M. W. (2013). Gestures role in speaking, learning, and creating language. Annual Review of Psychology, 64(1), 257-283.

Ozubko, J. D., & Macleod, C. M. (2010). The production effect in memory: Evidence that distinctiveness underlies the benefit. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36(6), 1543-1547. http://dx.doi. org/10.1037/a0020604

Learn to Play a Musical Instrument

Collins, A. (z.j.). How playing an instrument benefits your brain Anita Collins. [Video library]. Consulted from

Vollmann, H., Ragert, P., Conde, V., Villringer, A., Classen, J., Witte, O. W., & Steele, C. J. (2014). Instrument specific use-dependent plasticity shapes the anatomical properties of the corpus callosum: a comparison between musicians and non-musicians. Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 245. fnbeh.2014.00245

Zatorre, R. (2005). Music, the food of neuroscience? Nature, 434(7031), 312-315.

Meditation and mindfulness

Levy, D. M., Wobbrock, J. O., Kaszniak A. W., & Ostergen M. (2012). The effects of mindfulness meditation training on multitasking in a high-stress information environment. Graphics Interface Conference 2012, 45-42. Consulted from

McGreevey, S. (2011, 21 January). Eight weeks to a better brain. Harvard Gazette. Consulted from http://news.

Turakitwanakan, W., Mekseepralard, C., & Busarakumtragul, P. (2013). Effects of mindfulness meditation on serum cortisol of medical students. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet, 96(1),S90-95.  Consulted from

Mindful Running as Meditation

Erickson, K. I., Voss, M. W., Prakash, R. S., Basak, C., Szabo, A., Chaddock, L., Kramer, A. F. (2011). Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 3017-3022.

Mantra and Singing Meditation

Vickhoff, B., Malmgren, H., Aström, R., Nyberg, G.., Ekström, S.-R., Engwall, M., Jörnsten R. (2013). Music structure determines heart rate variability of singers. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 334. fpsyg.2013.00334

Master Your Stress Physiology

Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.

Nelson, D. L., & Simmons, B. L. (2003). Eustress: An elusive construct an engaging pursuit. In P. L. Perrewé & D. C. Ganster, (Eds.). Emotional and Physiological Processes and Positive Intervention Strategies, 265-322. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/s1479-3555(03)03007-5

Meet Stress with Gratitude

Keller, A., Litzelman, K., Wisk, L. E., Maddox, T., Cheng, E. R., Creswell, P. D., & Witt, W. P. (2011). Does the perception that stress affects health matter? The association with health and mortality. Health Psychology, 31(5), 677684.

Reprogram Your Posture

Cuddy, A. J. C., Wilmuth, C. A., & Carney, D. R. (2012, September). The benefit of power posing a high-stakes social evaluation. Harvard Business School Working Paper, No. 13-027. Consulted from bit stream/handle/1/9547823/13-027.pdf?sequence=1

Cool Your Face

Speck, D. F., & Bruce, D. S. (1978, March). Effects of varying thermal and apneic conditions on the human diving reflex. Undersea Biomedical Research, 5(1), 914. Consulted from

Blix, A. S., & Folkow, B. (2011). Cardiovascular adjustments to diving in mammals and birds. Comprehensive Physiology, , 917–945.

The 4-7-8-breathing technique

Weil, A. (z.d.). Three Breathing Exercises. Consulted from breathing-exercises.html

Re-wild Your Life

Take a cold shower

Cypess, A. M., Lehman, S., Williams, G., Tal, I., Rodman, D., Goldfine, A. B., Kahn, C. R. (2009). Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360(15), 15091517.

Hamlin, M. J. (2007). The effect of contrast temperature water therapy on repeated sprint performance. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 10(6), 398-402.

Shevchuk, N. A. (2008). Adapted cold shower as a potential treatment for depression. Medical Hypotheses, 70(5), 995991001.

Siems, W. G., Kuijk, F. J. van, Maass, R., & Brenke, R. (1994). Uric acid and glutathione levels during short-term whole body cold exposure. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 16(3), 299305. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/0891-5849(94)90030-2

Virtanen, K. A., Lidell, M. E., Orava, J.,  Heglind, M., Westergren, R., Niemi, T.,    Nuutila, P. (2009). Functional brown adipose tissue in healthy adults. The New England Journal of Medicine, 360(15), 15181525. http://dx.doi. org/10.1056/NEJMoa0808949

Sleep in a Cold Room

Torgan, C. (2014, 28 July). Cool temperature alters human fat and metabolism. NIH Research Matters. Consulted from

Lee, P., Smith, S., Linderman, J., Courville, A. B., Brychta, R. J., Dieckmann, W., Celi, F. S. (2014). Temperature- acclimated brown adipose tissue modulates insulin sensitivity in humans. Diabetes, 63(11), 36863698. http://dx.doi. org/10.2337/db14-0513

Restore Your Circadian Cycle

Wright, K. P., McHill, A. W., Birks, B. R., Griffin, B. R., Rusterholz, T., & Chinoy, E. D. (2013). Entrainment of the human circadian clock to the natural light-dark cycle. Current biology: CB, 16, 1554–1558. cub.2013.06.039

Physical Movement

Scherder, E. (2014). Laat je hersenen niet zitten. Amsterdam, Nederland: Singel Uitgeverijen

Fit in Five with the Tabata Interval

Tabata, I., Nishimura, K., Kouzaki, M., Hirai, Y., Ogita, F., Miyachi, M., & Yamamoto, K. (1996). Effects of moderate- intensity endurance and high-intensity intermittent training on anaerobic capacity and VO2max. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28(10), 13271330.

Lift Something Heavy

Rivas, A. (2014, 1 October). Weight lifting for just 20 minutes a day could boost your memory, benefiting beginners. Medical Daily. Consulted from your    memorybenefiting-beginners-306020

Run Slowly

Creer, D. J., Romberg, C., Saksida, L. M., Praag, H. van, & Bussey, T. J. (2010). Running enhances spatial pattern separation in mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107(5), 23672372. pnas.0911725107

Strike a Pose

Oken, B. S., Zajdel, D., Kishiyama, S., Flegal, K., Dehen, C., Haas, M., Kraemer, D. F., Lawrence, J., & Leyva, J. (2006). Randomized, controlled, six-month trial of yoga in healthy seniors: effects on cognition and quality of life. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine,12(1), 4047. Consulted from

Sutherland, S. (2014, 1 March). How yoga changes the brain. Scientific American Mind, 25(2). Consulted from

Draganski, B., Gaser, C., Busch, V., Schuierer, G.., Bogdahn, U., & May, A. (2004). Neuroplasticity: Changes in grey matter induced by training. Nature, 427(6972), 311312.

Juggle Some Balls

Neuroscience: Juggling takes stage as brain modifier. (2004, January 31). Science News, 165(5),  78-78.

Nutritional Autonomy

Eat more good fats

Gömez-Pinilla, F. (2008). Brain foods: The effects of nutrients on brain function. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9(7), 568578.

Sinn, N., & Bryan, J. (2007). Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning and behavior problems associated with child ADHD. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 28(2), 8291.

Wolpert S. (2008, 9 July). Scientists learn how what you eat affects your brain and those of your kids. UCLA University of California at Los Angeles. Consulted from scientists-learn-how-food-affects-52668

Mercola, D. R. (2014, September 18). Artificial Sweeteners Raise Your Risk of Diabetes by Altering Your Gut Microbiome. Retrieved from

Embrace the Empty Stomach

Knapton, S. (2014, 5 June). Fasting for three days can regenerate entire immune system, study finds. The Daily Telegraph. Consulted from regenerate-entire-immune-system-study-finds.html

Mattson, M. P., & Wan, R. (2005). Beneficial effects of intermittent fasting and caloric restriction on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry,16( 3), 129-137. http://dx.doi. org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2004.12.007

Sukel, K. (2012, 21 May). The brains metabolic mysteries. The Dana foundation. Consulted from http://www.dana. org/News/Details.aspx?id=43223

Alirezaei, M., Kemball, C. C., Flynn, C. T., Wood, M. R., Whitton, J. L., & Kiosses, W. B. (2010). Short-term fasting induces profound neuronal autophagy. Autophagy, 6(6), 702–710. Consulted from pubmed/20534972

Mattson, M. P. (2005). Energy intake, meal frequency, and health: a neurobiological perspective. Annual review of nutrition, , 237–260. Consulted from

Halagappa, V. K., Guo, Z., Pearson, M., Matsuoka, Y., Cutler, R. G., Laferla, F. M., & Mattson, M. P. (2007). Intermittent fasting and caloric restriction ameliorate age-related behavioral deficits in the triple-transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of disease, 1, 212–220. Consulted from

Bhutani, S., Klempel, M. C., Berger, R. A., & Varady, K. A. (2010). Improvements in coronary heart disease risk indicators by alternate-day fasting involve adipose tissue modulations. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 11, 2152–2159.

Carlson A.J., & Hoelzel F. (1946). Apparent prolongation of the life span of rats by intermittent fasting. Journal of nutrition, 31, 363 – 375. Consulted from

Hartman, M. L., Veldhuis, J. D., Johnson, M. L., Lee, M. M., Alberti, K. G., Samojlik, E., & Thorner, M. O. (1992). Augmented growth hormone (GH) secretory burst frequency and amplitude mediate enhanced GH secretion during a two-day fast in normal men. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 4, 757–765. Consulted from

Mattson, M. P., Duan, W., & Guo, Z. (2003). Meal size and frequency affect neuronal plasticity and vulnerability to disease: cellular and molecular mechanisms. Journal of neurochemistry, 3, 417–431. Consulted from http://www.

Harber, M. P., Konopka, A. R., Jemiolo, B., Trappe, S. W., Trappe, T. A., & Reidy, P. T. (2010). Muscle protein synthesis and gene expression during recovery from aerobic exercise in the fasted and fed states. American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology, 5, R1254-62.